Hydrocarbons : Classification | JEE | NEET

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In this Article i am explaining the topic of Hydrocarbons , Part-1.

Hydrocarbons are made up of Carbon & Hydrogen only .

Carbon has unique property of forming large Number of chemical compounds . Reason of this is a property called as CATENATION .

Catenation is the property of self linking . Atoms of similar type combines together to form Large number of compounds.

Cause : High Bond strength of C - C bond.

Classification

Hydrocarbons are Mainly classified as :

a. Aliphatic Hydrocarbon

b. Aromatic Hydrocarbon

a. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons : These are open Chain Compounds of Carbon & Hydrogen .

  1. Saturated Hydrocarbons : These are those Hydrocarbons which consist of only  Single bond between Carbon & Carbon . e.g. Ethane , Propane & Other Alkanes.
  2. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons : These are those Hydrocarbons which consist of only  multiple bond or pi- bond between Carbon & Carbon.example , Alkene & Alkyne

Cyclic Hydrocarbon :

These are those Hydrocarbons which consist of Closed chain of atoms . These are of two types :

a. Alicyclic compounds : Closed chaon compounds which are not aromatic. e.g. Cyclopropane etc.

b. Aromatic compounds : These are those compounds which consist of Benzene Ring .

Q. What is meant by Homocyclic & Heterocyclic compounds?

Ans. (a) Homocyclic compounds are those which consost of only carbon atoms. e.g. Cyclohexane.

(b) Heterocyclic Compounds are those compounds which along with carbon atom consist of other elements.

Q. What are Paraffins ?

Ans : These are the compounds which are less reactive due to the present of sigma bond only i.e. Alkanes.

Q. What are Olefins ?

Ans : Alkenes are also known as Olefines , due to formation of oil like compounds with Chlorine .

Degree of Carbon Atom

It is the number of carbon atom attached to given Carbon atom.

  1. Primary Carbon Atom : This is the carbon atom which is attached to one Carbon atom Only.
  2. Secondary  Carbon Atom : This is the carbon atom which is attached to two other Carbon atom Only.
  3. Tertiary Carbon Atom : This is the carbon atom which is attached to three other Carbon atom Only.
  4. Quaternary Carbon Atom : This is the carbon atom which is attached to four. other Carbon atom Only.

 

 

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